Monthly Archives: May 2013

Translation Notes, Ruth 2:4-16

This week is week 5 from the syllabus: Ruth 2:4-16. Wordplay in the Tanakh, Hebrew grammar (Hophal verbs, jussive forms of the verb). Reading: Esekenazi lii-lv, 31-42.

VERSE 4: יהוה עִמָּכֶם is a verbless clause (so the verb “is” is understood) and could be rendered “the Lord is with you.” Since the context is a blessing, it is reasonable to understand it as: “May the Lord be with you.” יְבָרֶכְךָ is the Imperfect (in a Jussive or “may he” sense) 3ms of ברך with the 2ms suffix and “the Lord” is the subject (with Boaz as the implied object). Continue reading

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Translation Notes, Ruth 2:1-3

It would be a good idea also to get a head start on next week’s passage (2:4-16) which will be much longer.


  • וַתֹּאמֶר vav-conversive 2fs אמר
  • רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה Ruth the Moabitess.
  • אֶל–נָעֳמִי Is the preposition אֶל making Naomi the indirect object.
  • אֵלְכָה–נָּה Imperfect 1cs הלך with cohortative ה ending and particle of entreaty or courtesy נָּה attached. See article on “Cohortatives and the Particle of Entreaty.”
  • הַשָּׂדֶה noun with definite article.
  • וַאֲלַקֳטָה This is not a vav-conversive because the verb form is cohortative (asking permission). The vav here simply means “and.” Imperfect 1cs לקט with cohortative ה ending. Note the vowel under the ל, that it is pronounced “o” as in “low”.
  • בַשִּׁבֳּלִים The preposition ב prefixed to the masculine plural form of the noun שִׁבֹּלֶת
  • אַחַר has several meanings but is used here in the sense of “after” or “behind.”
  • אֲשֶׁר is the relative particle which can mean “that” or “which” or “who” to begin a clause. Ruth is asking permission to glean after “[one} who . . .” or “whomever . . .”
  • אֶמְצָא–חֵן Imperfect 1cs מצא with חֵן noun ms as the direct object of the verb.
  • בְּעֵינָיו The preposition ב is prefixed, followed by עֵינֵי (the plural construct (word pair form, genitive) of עַיִן), with the 3ms suffix ו attached.
  • וַתֹּאמֶר vav-conversive 2fs אמר
  • לָהּ The preposition ל with the 3fs suffix.
  • לְכִי Imperative (command verb) fs הלך
  • בִתִּי The noun בַּת with the 1cs suffix.

TRANSLATION COMMENTS, 2:1, 3-7. Continue reading

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Translation Notes, 1:19-22

For this week’s class: Ruth 1:19-22. Reading: Esekenazi xxxix-xlviii, 23-26. We will also talk about Shaddai, Hiphil and Niphal verbs, and more..


  • וַתֵּלַכְנָה is the vav-conversive 3fp of הלך.
  • שְׁתֵּיהֶם is the number two in construct (word pair, genitive) form with the 3mp suffix attached (“[the] two of them”). How can the suffix be masculine when the referents are female and the verb is feminine (we should expect שְׁתֵּיהֶן)? This may possibly be another example of words deliberately “mispronounced” to give an archaic effect to the story (although this example does not occur in the speech of Naomi, where most similar examples do). Continue reading

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